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5 Jenis Sertifikat Tanah yang Penting Diketahui sebelum Membeli Lahan

Terakhir diperbarui 21 Februari 2024 · 5 min read · by Miyanti Rahman

Jenis Sertifikat Tanah

Jual beli tanah membutuhkan pengetahuan yang memadai. Jadi, sebelum melakukan proses transaksi, penting untuk mengetahui jenis jenis sertifikat tanah di Indonesia.

Tujuannya untuk melindungi diri kita sebagai konsumen dari penipuan. Nantinya, wawasan yang kita miliki pun dapat memperlancar proses transaksi.

Dengan surat tanah yang sah, kita dapat mengetahui hak kepemilikan yang berlaku atas sebidang lahan. Dokumen ini pun dapat menjadi acuan terhadap legalitas lahan.

Selain itu, surat tanah berguna untuk mengajukan pinjaman ke bank. Baik itu, Kredit Pemilikan Rumah (KPR), kredit multiguna, atau personal loan.

Perlu diketahui, ada beberapa macam surat tanah berdasarkan fungsi dan kegunaannya. Nah, agar tak keliru mari kita simak satu per satu penjelasannya.

Jenis-Jenis Sertifikat Tanah dan Bangunan yang Sah di Indonesia

1. Sertifikat Hak Milik (SHM)

shm

Ilustrasi bentuk sertifikat tanah

SHM tanah merupakan singkatan dari Sertifikat Hak Milik. Pemegang surat SHM artinya punya kekuasaaan penuh atas tanah atau lahan miliknya sendiri.

Seperti diketahui surat tanah SHM adalah sertifikat dengan kedudukan tertinggi dan terkuat di mata hukum. Dokumen ini menunjukkan bukti kepemilikan yang sah & valid.

Pemilik sertifikat hak milik tanah dan bangunan ini punya hak penuh untuk mengelola, serta memanfaatkan tanah sesuai yang diinginkannya.

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Jika sewaktu-waktu terjadi sengketa, maka pemilik sertifikat rumah dan tanah inilah yang paling berhak. Tak ada pihak lain yang dapat menganggu-gugat.

Selain itu, bank menerima SHM sebagai agunan pembiayaan. Pemilik dapat memperoleh berbagai macam pembiayaan.

Oleh sebab itu, sangat direkomendasikan membeli tanah atau rumah dengan SHM seperti di bawah. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar aman dan minim risiko investasi.

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2. Sertifikat Hak Guna Usaha (HGU)

Sertifikat Hak Guna Usaha

Foto ilustrasi gambar sertifikat tanah

Hak Guna Usaha (HGU) adalah hak untuk mengusahakan tanah yang dikuasai oleh negara. Maka dapat dipastikan status tanah tersebut adalah milik negara.

Berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah, luas minimum kepemilikan HGU adalah 5 hektare dengan jangka waktu penguasaan lahan paling lama 35 tahun.

Bila jangka waktu habis, HGU boleh diperpanjang hingga 25 tahun (selama negara setuju). Proses ini perlu dilakukan selambat-lambatnya dua tahun sebelum berakhir.

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Jika luas tanah melebihi 25 hektare, maka dibutuhkan mekanisme khusus untuk mendapatkan hak gunanya. Lalu bagaimana cara mendapatkan hak ini?

Singkatnya, pemohon hak guna perlu menentukan lokasi lahan dilanjutkan dengan pengurusan izin lokasi. Setelah itu melakukan pembebasan lahan.

Nah, biasanya pemerintah memberikan hak penggunaan kepada individu, badan usaha atau koperasi guna tujuan tertentu. Misalnya peternakan, perikanan dan sebagainya.

3. Sertifikat Hak Pakai

Sertifikat Hak Pakai

Sertifikat Hak Pakai (SHP) merupakan bukti legalitas yang memungkinkan pemanfaatan properti sesuai dengan karakteristik hak pakainya. Objeknya antara lain:

  • tanah negara;
  • tanah hak pengelolaan; atau
  • tanah hak milik.

Penerbitan SHP dilakukan melalui keputusan menteri atau pejabat berwenang. Sertifikat ini dapat dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat luas maupun lembaga.

Hak pakai diberikan selama jangka waktu tertentu dan tidak boleh disertai syarat-syarat yang mengandung unsur pemerasan.

SHP memiliki masa berlaku tertentu dan dapat diperpanjang sesuai kesepakatan antara pemilik tanah dan pemegang SHP.

Sistemnya memang mirip sewa-menyewa tetapi tetapi kategori sertifikat ini nyatanya berbeda. Ada pun hak-hak yang diberikan kepada pengelola, yaitu sebagai berikut.

  • Mengembangkan tanah.
  • Membangun atau mengembangkan properti.
  • Mengolah tanah untuk mendapatkan hasil produksi.

4. Sertifikat Hak Guna Bangunan (SHGB)

Sertifikat Hak Guna Bangunan (SHGB)

Sertifikat Hak Guna Bangunan (HGB) merupakan instrumen penting dalam dunia properti. Memberikan hak kepada pemegangnya untuk memanfaatkan tanah negara.

Namun, berbeda dengan hak pakai dan gak guna, HGB dapat ditingkatkan menjadi SHM. Dokumen ini menawarkan peluang dan manfaat bagi individu dan investor.

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Hak dan manfaat bagi pemegang HGB, yaitu sebagai berikut.

  • Pemegang HGB berhak membangun struktur permanen di atas tanah, membuka peluang untuk hunian, komersial, dan industri.
  • Jangka waktu HGB umumnya berlaku selama 30 tahun (boleh diperpanjang sampai 20 tahun), sehingga memberikan kepastian dan stabilitas bagi pemegangnya.
  • Berbeda dengan SHM, SHGB dapat dimiliki oleh Warga Negara Asing (WNA), membuka peluang investasi properti bagi pihak luar negeri.

Pada umumnya, lahan dengan status HGB banyak dimanfaatkan oleh developer untuk membangun apartemen atau perumahan. Jarang individu yang membeli tanah HGB.

5. Sertifikat Tanah Berbentuk Girik

sertifikat tanah girik

Contoh sertifikat tanah girik

Girik adalah bukti pembayaran pajak atas lahan, bukan sertifikat tanah. Namun, dapat digunakan untuk menunjukkan penguasaan individu terhadap sebidang tanah.

Lahan berstatus tanah girik umumnya berasal dari hak milik adat yang belum didaftarkan di Badan Pertanahan Nasional (BPN).

Status hukum girik tergolong tidak kuat dibanding surat kepemilikan tanah lain. Proses peningkatan girik menjadi HGB atau SHM membutuhkan dokumen yang lengkap.

Perlu diketahui juga proses peningkatan status tersebut membutuhkan waktu dan biaya.

Bunga KPR Terbaru

Beli properti impian dengan memilih produk KPR terbaik di Rumah123
Bank Mandiri
Bunga mulai
2.65%
Tenor maks.
30 tahun
Angsuran mulai dari
Rp. 967.113
Bank OCBC
Bunga mulai
2.83%
Tenor maks.
25 tahun
Angsuran mulai dari
Rp. 1.117.000
Bank BTN
Bunga mulai
7.5%
Tenor maks.
15 tahun
Angsuran mulai dari
Rp. 2.224.830
*Perhitungan angsuran berdasarkan tenor maksimal, harga rumah Rp 300 juta, dan uang muka 20%. Lihat Semua Bank

Jika membeli tanah girik, maka pastikan nama yang tertera pada dokumen girik serupa dengan yang tertera pada Akta Jual Beli (AJB).

Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk menghindari konflik yang terjadi di masa depan.

Itulah beberapa jenis sertifikat tanah yang penting diketahui sebelum transaksi jual beli lahan.

Semoga ulasan di atas dapat bermanfaat untuk kita semua, ya.

Selamat mencari properti impian!

Ada pertanyaan? Temukan jawabannya di Teras123, tempat ngobrolin properti dari Rumah123.