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Panduan Mengubah AJB ke SHM beserta Syarat dan Ketentuannya

Terakhir diperbarui 08 Maret 2024 · 4 min read · by Septian Nugraha

ajb ke shm

Sertifikat Hak Milik (SHM) dan Akta Jual Beli (AJB) merupakan dua jenis dokumen legalitas properti. 

Kedua dokumen tersebut bisa dibilang saling terkait dan memiliki fungsi yang krusial dalam transaksi jual beli properti. 

AJB merupakan dokumen autentik yang menyatakan telah terjadinya peralihan hak kepemilikan atas rumah dan/atau tanah melalui jual beli. 

AJB dibuat dan diterbitkan oleh Pejabat Pembuat Akta Tanah (PPAT), sehingga tidak tergolong sebagai bukti kepemilikan properti. 

Bukti autentik mengenai hak kepemilikan properti adalah sertifikat, sebagaimana dijelaskan dalam Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1960 tentang Peraturan Dasar Pokok-pokok Agraria (UUPA). 

AJB adalah bukti dari peristiwa perdata berupa jual-beli terhadap tanah atau rumah.

Sedangkan SHM adalah bukti kepemilikan terhadap tanah atau rumah tersebut.

Maka itu, untuk melegitimasi kepemilikan atas properti yang baru dibeli, pihak pembeli harus mengubah AJB ke SHM.

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Nggak mau repot mengubah AJB ke SHM? Anda bisa membeli unit rumah yang DIJAMIN PASTINYA, termasuk PASTI SHM seperti Kemang Eminence.

Sambil memutuskan, yuk pelajari dulu cara cara mengubah AJB ke SHM di bawah ini.

Syarat Mengubah AJB ke SHM

Setelah mengetahui perbedaannya, sekarang saatnya kita mengetahui cara mengurus peralihan dokumen AJB ke SHM.

Pada prosesnya, ada sejumlah dokumen persyaratan yang harus dipenuhi saat mengurus perubahan AJB ke SHM, meliputi: 

  • Menyertakan AJB
  • Pembuatan surat bebas sengketa yang menyatakan bahwa tanah yang dimaksud tidak dalam keadaan sengketa, serta ditandatangani oleh RT dan RW, lalu disahkan oleh kelurahan setempat.
  • Sertifikat Hak Atas Tanah (sertifikat lama yang masih atas nama pemilik lama atau penjual) 
  • Fotokopi KTP penjual dan pembeli
  • Fotokopi Kartu Keluarga (KK)
  • Fotokopi NPWP
  • Bukti lunas pembayaran PPh dan BPHTB

Tahapan Mengurus AJB ke SHM

Proses AJB ke SHM

Setelah mempersiapkan dokumen yang telah disebutkan di atas, Anda tinggal mengikuti tahapan-tahapan pengurusan AJB ke SHM berikut ini. 

1. Mengajukan Permohonan Sertifikat ke PPAT

Hal pertama yang harus dilakukan adalah mendatangi PPAT setempat.

Langkah ini didasari pada Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 24 Tahun 1997 tentang Pendaftaran Tanah.

Pada Pasal 37, disebutkan bahwa setiap pengurusan balik nama sertifikat tanah harus melalui PPAT.

Dalam proses ini, PPAT akan memeriksa kesesuaian data yuridis dan data teknis sertifikat tanah pemilik lama di BPN.

Khusus untuk penjual tanah, dibutuhkan syarat lain seperti bukti pembayaran PBB (Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan).

Selain itu, perlu dilampirkan pula sertifikat tanah dan surat pernyataan dari penjual, yang menyatakan bahwa tanah tersebut tidak dalam keadaan sengketa.

2. Pengukuran ke Lokasi

Setelah semua berkas lengkap dan pemohon mendapat tanda terima dokumen dari kantor pertanahan, maka petugas BPN akan melakukan pengukuran ke lokasi tanah.

Pengukuran dilakukan oleh petugas dengan cara ditunjukkan batas-batas oleh pemohon atau kuasanya.

3. Pengesahan Surat Ukur

Hasil dari pengukuran bidang tanah tersebut akan didokumentasikan dan dipetakan di Badan Pertanahan Nasional.

Selanjutnya, surat ukur akan disahkan atau ditandatangani oleh pejabat yang berwenang.

4. Penelitian oleh Petugas Panitia A

Selanjutnya,  dilakukan penelitian dari Panitia A yang dilakukan di Sub-Seksi Pemberian Hak Tanah.

Anggota Panitia A sendiri terdiri dari petugas BPN dan lurah setempat.

5. Pengumuman Data Yuridis di Kelurahan dan BPN

Setelah dilakukan penelitian oleh Panitia A, maka petugas BPN akan memajang data yuridis permohonan hak tanah di kantor kelurahan dan BPN selama 60 hari.

Tujuannya untuk menjamin tidak ada klaim atau keberatan terkait permohonan hak atas tanah tersebut dari pihak lain.

6. Terbitnya SK Hak Atas Tanah

Selanjutnya, tanah yang sebelumnya berstatus girik tersebut akan terbit dalam bentuk Sertifikat Hak Milik (SHM).

7. Pembayaran Bea Perolehan Hak atas Tanah (BPHTB)

BPHTB dibayar sesuai luas tanah yang dimohonkan. Jumlahnya tergantung dari Nilai Jual Objek Pajak (NJOP) dan luas tanah.

Pembayaran BPHTB baru bisa dilakukan pada saat surat ukur telah selesai dibuat.

8. Pendaftaran SK Hak untuk Penerbitan Sertifikat

SK Hak kemudian dilanjutkan prosesnya dengan penerbitan sertifikat pada subseksi Pendaftaran Hak dan Informasi (PHI).

9. Pengambilan Sertifikat di Badan Pertanahan Nasional

Lama waktu penerbitan sertifikat berbeda-beda, tergantung lokasi dan faktor lainnya.

Namun, umumnya sertifikat bisa diambil setelah melalui proses selama 6 bulan.

Baca juga:

Agar Tak Salah Kaprah, Kenali Perbedaan PPJB dan AJB

Berapa Biaya AJB ke SHM?

Berapa Biaya AJB ke SHM?

Ada beberapa biaya yang harus disiapkan saat proses AJB ke SHM di Kantor BPN, salah satunya biaya pengecekan keabsahan sertifikat tanah senilai Rp50.000.

Selain itu, ada pula biaya pelayanan balik nama sertifikat, yang besarannya dapat dihitung menggunakan rumus berikut ini:

Nilai tanah (per meter persegi) x luas tanah (meter persegi) : 1.000

Misalnya Anda membeli tanah untuk membangun rumah seluas 100 m² dengan harga Rp1 juta per 2, maka perhitungannya adalah:

Rp1.000.000 x 100 meter persegi : 1.000 = Rp100.000

Jadi, total biaya pengecekan keabsahan sertifikat tanah dan biaya pelayanan balik nama sertifikat di Kantor BPN adalah Rp150.000.

Sekian penjelasan dan informasi mengenai proses pengalihan AJB menjadi SHM.

Perlu diingat, SHM adalah status kepemilikan properti tertinggi dan kuat di mata hukum Indonesia.

Karena itu, jika ingin memiliki rumah atau tanah dengan hak milik seutuhnya, dibutuhkan SHM sebagai bukti yang konkret.

Semoga informasi ini bermanfaat!